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M.B.YamalovOn the role of historical traditions in the light of 450-th Anniversary of the Voluntary Union of Bashkiria and Russia 8

Analysis of modern trends and effects of Russian-Bashkir relations in the course of 450 years, starting from the XVI century, when this region after constructive and suc-cessful negotiations had by free will entered the Russian centralized multiethnic state.

G.V.MordvintsevThe fall of monarchy in Russia and the clergy in the Guberniya of Ufa 17

In the early XX-th c. the crisis of the Russian Orthodox Church was a constituent part of systemic crisis of rule in Russia and it was accompanied by complicated relations between the power and various religions as well as believers and the clergy. The priests of various denominations in the Guberniya of Ufa had in March 1917 recognized the fall of the Romanovs dynasty. But their key pursuit had become the search of a new social posi-tion and better welfare. An exception was the attitude of the Bishop of Ufa and Menze-linsk, Right Rev. Andrei, who thought the immediate objectives of the Russian Orthodox Church to be: 1) integration of the Russians on the basis of reconciliation with the Old Believers and socialists; 2) recovery of the spiritual role of the Church in the national life.

I.N.BayishevThe legal aspects in the implementation of the Decree on School and Church Separation (based on Bashkortostan realities) 25

The article treats the issues of reforms in the national education system after the October revolution. It describes the phases and details of implementation of the De-cree on School and Church Separation in Bashkortostan on the basis of archive mate-rials and published statutory acts. Many particulars of the subject were unknown be-fore, especially those regarding the public response towards the reforms carried out by the Soviet Government.

S.A.SevastianovV.I.Lenin and zemstvo (elective provincial council) in Ufa (some aspects of V.I.Lenin's sojourn in Ufa in the summer of 1900) 32

An endeavor to study V.I.Lenin's sojourn in Ufa in the summer of 1900 including the circumstances of his visit to the zemstvo board of Gubernyia of Ufa based on the materials of the Central National Historic Archive of RB, Russian National Historic Archive, and on the already known data.

E.N.AldashovaDevelopment of Bashkortostan economy in the 20s to 50s of the XX-th century 37

Analysis of development processes in Bashkortostan economy in the years 20s to 50s of the XX-th century. Concrete examples are given of the creation and improve-ment of oil industry, machine-building and metallurgical plants, results are shown and shortcomings are exposed. The author marks the peculiarities in the development of regional economy, of enterprises and branches of local and national level, of heavy and light industries, and problems in Bashkirian agriculture.

R.G.YusupovOn the Bashkir Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the 60s and 70s of the XX-th century 43

Analysis of the Bashkir Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences since the sec-ond half of the 60s up to the end of the 70s of the XX-th century, i.e. after the recovery of this scientific structure. Data are given on the results of scientific work, successes achieved and obstacle negotiation. Analysis is presented of the role of Presidium of the Bashkir Branch of the USSR AS, which starting from the recovery period and being actively supported by the Bashkir Communist Party Regional Committee and the BASSR Council of Ministers, had accomplished a series of measures aimed at more effective researches and their higher scientific level, better equipping and broad em-ployment of the most up-to-date methods in the work of scientific institutions.

E.A.ZhdanovaFrom the history of Bashkir koumyss 49

Cattle breeding has been the main occupation of Bashkir population since at least the second half of II millennium B.C. Still in late XIX-th c. Many Bashkirs in the Tran-surals possessed their herds, which numbered hundreds of heads. Koumyss had initially served only to quench the ancient nomads' thirst and lately became widely recognized as means of medication. Koumyss played an immense role in the life of the Bashkir people. We should now revive the national nutritional traditions of Bashkortostan, because a healthy life style is the rational way of living in this particular geographic zone for its population.

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N.N.RazuvayevaSpecific features of political regime in Russia during the presidency of B.Eltsin (on peculiar character of the RF Government functioning in 1992–1999) 54

Cattle breeding has been the main occupation of Bashkir population since at least the second half of II millennium B.C. Still in late XIX-th c. Many Bashkirs in the Tran-surals possessed their herds, which numbered hundreds of heads. Koumyss had initially served only to quench the ancient nomads' thirst and lately became widely recognized as means of medication. Koumyss played an immense role in the life of the Bashkir people. We should now revive the national nutritional traditions of Bashkortostan, because a healthy life style is the rational way of living in this particular geographic zone for its population.

V.N.KoudryashevImperial and ethnocratic tendencies in Russian nationalism of the late XIX early XX cc. 66

Analysis of different points of view among the Russian scientists upon the policy of russification of the tsarist government in the second half of the XIX-th c. These in-clude moderately imperial approaches of L.A.Tikhomirov and V.P.Meshcheryakov as well as more severe ethnocratic ideas of M.O.Menshikov and A.G.Shcherbatov, and the views of Slavophil publicist S.F.Sharapov. Also touched upon is the problem of anti-Semitism in the Russian politics.

R.F.GaripovThe lessons of Stolypin reforms and contemporary agrarian reforms in Russia and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe 76

The article analyses the results of Stolypin agrarian reform. Many facts show that it brought no significant results. The main cause of the failure was peasants' resis-tance to land privatization, their reluctance to turn into farmers-proprietors. Agrarian reforms similar to that of Stolypin in the post-socialist countries of Eastern Europe in the 90s of the XX-th c. and in contemporary Russia brought about a slump in farmer production. Thus, sole introduction of private ownership of land without a series of other measures does not guarantee neither modernization nor efficiency of production.

O.A.KharusRadical-liberal projects of changes in the agrarian industry of Siberia in the early XX-th c. 83

The author examines the projects of changes in the agrarian industry in Siberia offering as illustration the views of Siberian branches of Constitutional-democratic Party (CDP). In the opinion of Constitutional Democrats, the specific character of so-cial-economic development in Siberia destined the so called «peasant issue» to be of extraordinary value in the region. The key requirement the Siberian CDP branches had set was the increased area of land-use for landless and land-poor laborers. The improvements planned by the Siberian Constitutional Democrats did not go beyond the general attitude of their Party towards agrarian problems. Emphasizing the re-gional peasant’s status quo they demonstrated certain independence in search of mod-ernization patterns of social and economic relations.

A.L.FilonenkoCity administration of Sochi and its role in the first urban redevelopment 92

Analysis of Alexander Denisovich Metelevs management when being the Envoy of the USSR Central Executive Committee (CEC) in the Sochi-Matsesta spa region since the end of 1933. The orders he issued serve to the author to show his specific way of managing the city of Sochi during the period of its first redevelopment as well as his style as a head of the USSR CEC Envoy Administration. Also listed are the re-sults he had achieved.

N.A.Efremova-ShershukovaSocial and political features of ethnic Germans in Kazakhstan in the 20s of the XX-th century 99

The fate of the ethnic Germans in Kazakhstan allows the author to examine com-plicated relations of the Soviet Power with ethno-territorial groups. He clears up the essence of Soviet localization policy and describes the Germans way to react to the so-cial, economic and political processes that were going on in that historical period.

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R.S.AyupovState-building during the Great Patriotic War 106

The article offers analysis of public administration organs work during the Great Patriotic War. Great attention is paid to the operations of the National Defense Committee and reorganizations in the departments of the Soviet of Peoples Commis-sars. Special analysis is given of the national military administration and law en-forcement organs. Also considered are the issues of public administration in the sphere of interethnic relations.

U.B.GuysinParticipation of the young people in the Urals region in the nationwide movement of battle-front troops civil support during the Great Patriotic War 117

The article offers a comprehensive review of the contribution the young genera-tion in the Urals region made to the nationwide movement of battle-front civil support. The cited archive and other sources show that one of the key factors in gaining the victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War was a disinterested patriotic help of the whole nation to the battle-field troops, which embodied the utmost care of society towards strengthening the might of the national armed forces. Accentuated is the spe-cial role of the young people in this truly nationwide movement as a brilliant evidence of their singular devotion to the Homeland.

V.A.AkhmadullinThe endeavors of the German Nazis to use Islam and the Moslems in the war against the Soviet Union 127

The recent years show a significant rise in the interest to religious issues. Islam is no exception and this concerns not only dogmatic matter but also the history of this great religion. Many interesting and instructive things in this case may be found in the period of the Great Patriotic War. In those years both the Soviet Union and Germany looked for support in religion, Islam included. This article discloses the endeavors of the Nazis, sometimes rather effective and original, to employ the great doctrine and the Moslems in achieving their inhuman objectives.

A.S.Masalimov, T.S.MasalimovRefugees and POW of the WWI in the Gubernya of Ufa 145

We will soon mark the ninety years since the end of WWI (2008) and hundred years since its start (2014). These dates should induce additional research in its his-tory. This is also valid for Bashkortostan historians. This issue is unfortunately scarcely represented in the Republican historiography. The authors only touched one topic: the deported and POW in the territory of the Gubernya of Ufa. Unexplored are such subjects as participation of Gubernya in-habitants in the operations, the economics of the region and its contribution to the military expenditure, social and psychological aftermaths of the war.

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R.I.YakupovBrief outline of development of ethnographic studies in Bashkortostan 152

The article is a historic outline of formation and development of ethnographic science in Bashkortostan, the rise of the first ethnographic school and further meth-odological ramifications of researchers. The account follows a chronological princi-ple: with the indication of stages in the regional ethnographic studies and specific fea-ture of every stage. The data support system includes practically all major ethno-graphic works of local scientists. The article is prepared with the assistance of the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fund, grant 05-01458a Ethnic situation in the Southern Urals in the early XXI century.

R.N.SuleimanovaDevelopment of matrimonial and domestic relations in Bashkortostan in the 20s and 30s of the XX-th century and feminine status 162

The article deals with the specific way of development of matrimonial and do-mestic relations in Bashkortostan in the severe after-revolutionary period. Analysis is offered of the content and application of governmental bills and of combinations of new matrimonial and domestic patterns with the traditional Bashkir way of life. The article is prepared with the assistance of the Russian Humanitarian Scien-tific Fund, grant 05-01458a Ethnic situation in the Southern Urals in the early XXI century.

M.R.BizhanovaDistribution of 'Kazakh' as ethnicon in Bashkortostan 169

The article deals with ethnic interaction of Bashkirs and Kazakhs in the South-ern Urals and it offers proofs of close and long-term contacts of the ethnoses in the frontier areas of Bashkortostan and Kazakhstan. The work is based on the written evi-dence as well as statistical, folklore and ethnographic materials. The article is prepared with the assistance of the Russian Humanitarian Scien-tific Fund, grant 05-01458a Ethnic situation in the Southern Urals in the early XXI century.

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V.K.FyodorovOdysseus in the Southern Urals? (on an evidence of eventual use of vegetable hallucinogens in the Uralian cultures of the Middle Bronze Age) 182

The article describes one of the categories of finds attributed to the Middle Bronze Age in the Southern Urals: bone paddles (wand tops). A supposition is of-fered of their relation to a religious practice of the ancient Indo-Europeans, which employed vegetable hallucinogens.

Z.Samashev, A.Ongarooly, G.Kyiasbek, N.Zhetisbuy, E.OralbuyKyzyluyiik the record of religious architecture in Western Kazakhstan 188

The article offers a description of the temple-sanctuary Kyzyluiik, one of the known records of Sarmatian culture, resulting from archeological digs of 2006.

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P.R.MukhametsalimovLegislative and legal documents of the late Anglo-Saxon society as evidence of acts regulating its military organization 192

The article deals with the legal documents, which reflect the military organiza-tion of late Anglo-Saxon society in the IXXI cc. The cited documents allow to study the legal basis of military service, the status of servicemen as well as its administrative basis implemented in burgage system.

D.N.KuleshovTheoretical and methodological aspects of migration studies 196

The article examines the notion, essence and types of migration as a complicated and multi-factor social phenomenon. Also disclosed are the theoretical and methodo-logical approaches in the modern social sciences to the study of migrational processes and evaluation is offered of points of view upon the essence and peculiarities of migra-tion in Russia. The author also presents his own understanding of the event.

E.R.ChernovaAdministration system in Bashkiria in the first half of the XIX-th century 206

The article discloses content, peculiarities and certain results of the public ad-ministration reform on the territory of modern Bashkiria, implemented in the first half of the XIX-th century.

N.A.KiryeyevaAntireligious propaganda among the rural population in the 20s of the XX-th century: Bashkiria as an example of peculiarities and results 211

The article shows Bashkiria as an example of direction, objectives, forms and methods of antireligious propaganda carried out by the Soviet power among the rural population.